Consciousness & Cognition Seminar

What is consciousness? Is it possible to learn something without being aware that you’ve learned it? Are animals conscious the same way we are? Which species, and why? We will examine a range of topics including: implicit learning, change blindness, embodied cognition, language and thought, animal learning, among others.

The explanatory gap

  • Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness by David Chalmers
  • David Chalmers on the “hard problem” of consciousness
  • Facing Backwards on the Problem of Consciousness by Dan Dennett
  • Daniel Dennett on Deflating Consciousness
  • Churchland, P. S. (1996). The hornswoggle problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3, 402-408.

Qualia, zombies, bats and related thought experiments

  • Nagel, T. (1974). What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
  • David Chalmers on Consciousness
  • Kathleen Akins (1993). What is It Like to Be Boring and Myopic?
  • (2002). “What is it like?” in M. Bekoff, C. Allen, and G. M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Moody, T. C. (1994). Conversations with zombies. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1, 196- 200.
  • Dennett (1999). The Zombic Hunch: Extinction of an Intuition?
  • Dennett, Daniel C. (1988) Quining Qualia
  • “Mary’s Room” Thought Experiment. Jackson, Frank (1982). “Epiphenomenal Qualia”. Philosophical Quarterly (32): 127–136. and Jackson, Frank (1986). “What Mary Didn’t Know”. Journal of Philosophy (83): 291–295.

Animal consciousness (the evolution of consciousness)

  • Donald R. Griffin and Gayle B. Speck (2004) New evidence of animal consciousness
  • Carruthers on Why the Question of Animal Consciousness Might Not Matter Very Much
  • Gallup, G. G., Jr., Anderson, J. R., & Shillito, D. J. (2002). “The Mirror Test,” in Bekoff, Allen, & Burghardt 2002.
  • Pepperberg, I.M. (1999). The Alex Studies: Cognitive and communicative abilities of Grey parrots, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Edelman D. & Seth, A. (2009). “Animal consciousness: a synthetic approach,” Trends in Neuroscience, 9: 476–84.
  • Daniel C. Dennett (1995). Animal Consciousness: What Matters and Why? Social Research 62:691-710.

The development of consciousness

  • The Development of Consciousness Philip David Zelazo, Helena Hong Gao, and Rebecca Todd The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness – Cambridge University Press
  • Brainerd, C. J.; Stein, L. M. & Reyna, V. F. (1998). On the development of conscious and unconscious memory. Developmental Psychology 34:342-357.
  • Flavell, John H.; Green, F. L. & Flavell, E. R. (2000). Development of children’s awareness of their own thoughts. Journal of Cognition and Development 1 (1):97-112.
  • Trevarthen, Colwyn & Reddy, Vasuvedi (2007). Consciousness in infants. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell.
  • Gopnik, Alison & Meltzoff, Andrew N. (1994). Minds, bodies, and persons: Young children’s understanding of the self and others as reflected in imitation and theory of mind research. In S. T. Parker, R. Mitchell & M. L. Boccia (eds.), Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.

The illusion of introspection

  • Johansson, Petter; Lars Hall, Sverker Sikström (2008). “From Change Blindness to Choice Blindness”. Psychologia (Psychologia Society) 51 (2): 142–155.
  • Nisbett, Richard E.; Timothy D. Wilson (1977). “Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes”. Psychological Review 84: 231–259. reprinted in David Lewis Hamilton, ed (2005). Social cognition: key readings. Psychology Press.
  • Pronin, Emily (2009). “The Introspection Illusion”. In Mark P. Zanna. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 41. 41. Academic Press. pp. 1–67.
  • Wilson, Timothy D. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: discovering the adaptive unconscious. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • How we know our own minds: the relationship between mindreading and metacognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2009), 121-138.

Free will and determinism

  • Dennett, D. (2003) Freedom Evolves. Viking Books.. Chapter 1 “Natural Freedom”.
  • Baumeister RF, Masicampo EJ, Dewall CN. (2009). Prosocial benefits of feeling free: disbelief in free will increases aggression and reduces helpfulness. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 35(2):260-8.
  • Vohs, K.D., & Schooler, J.W. (2008). The value of believing in free will: Encouraging a belief in determinism increases cheating. Psychological Science, 19, 49-54.
  • Bandura, A. (2008) The reconstrual of “free will” from the agentic perspective of social cognitive theory. In: Are we free? Psychology and free will, ed. J. Baer, J. C. Kaufman & R. F. Baumeister, pp. 86–127. Oxford University Press.

Implicit learning

  • Vokey, J. R. chapters on Subliminal Messages and Implicit Learning.
  • Dijksterhuis, A., & Nordgren, L.F. (2006). A Theory of Unconscious Thought.
  • Newell, B.R., Wong, K.Y., Cheung, J.C.H. & Rakow, T. (2008). Think, blink or sleep on it? The impact of modes of thought on complex decision making. The Quarterly Journal
  • of Experimental Psychology,62(4),707-732.
  • Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118(3), 219-235.
  • Vokey, J. R. & Brooks, J. R. (1992). The salience of item knowledge in learning artificial grammars. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18(2), 328-344.
  • Brooks, L. R. (1978). Nonanalytic concept formation and memory for instances. In E. Rosch & B. Lloyd (Eds.), Cognition and Categorization (pp. 169-211). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • A. P. Field, I like it, But I’m Not Sure Why: Can Evaluative Conditioning Occur Without Conscious Awareness? Conscious Cogn 9, 13 (Mar, 2000).

Consciousness and memory

  • Tulving, E. Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology. 26:1-12. 1985.
  • Loftus EF (1993). The reality of repressed memories, American Psychologist, 48(5), 518-537.
  • Lampinen JM; Neuschatz JS; Payne DG (1998). Memory illusions and consciousness: Examining the phenomenology of true and false memories, Current Psychology, 16(3-4), 181-224.
  • H. L. Roediger, K. B. Mcdermott (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Vol. 21, No. 4. (1995), pp. 803-814.
  • Loftus EF. (2005) Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory. Learn Mem. 2005 Jul-Aug;12(4):361-6.
  • Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), 207-232.

Attention and consciousness

  • Simons, D.J. and Chabris, C.F. (1999). “Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events”. Perception 28 (9): 1059–1074.
  • Rensink RA. (2002). Change detection. Annual Review of Psychology, 53:245-277.
  • McConkie, George W.; Currie, C.B. (1996), Visual stability across saccades while viewing complex pictures, “Visual stability across saccades while viewing complex pictures”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance 22 (3): 563–581.
  • Victor Lamme, V. (2003) Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:12–18. October 25th
  • Raymond JE, Shapiro KL, Arnell KM (1992). “Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink?”. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance 18 (3): 849–60.
  • De Brigard, F. & Prinz, J. (2010). Attention and Consciousness. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science. 1 (1): 51-59.

Consumer consciousness

  • J. A. Bargh, Losing Consciousness: Automatic Influences on Consumer Judgment, Behavior, and Motivation. J Consum Res 29, 280 (Sep, 2002).
  • Dijksterhuis, Van Baaren, Bongers, Bos, Van Leeuwen,Van der Leij. (in press) The rational unconscious: Conscious versus unconscious thought in complex consumer choice
  • Dijksterhuis, A., Smith, P. K., van Baaren, R. B., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2005). The unconscious consumer: Effects of environment on consumer behaviour. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(3), 193-202.
  • Ferraro, Bettman, Chartrand, The Power of Strangers: The Effect of Incidental Consumer Brand Encounters on Brand Choice. J Consum Res 35, 729 (Feb, 2009).
  • Chartrand, T. L. (2005) The Role of Conscious Awareness in Consumer Behavior, Journal of Consumer Psychology 15(3), 203-210.

The binding problem

  • Holcombe, AO (2009). The Binding Problem.
  • Bartels A., Zeki S. (2006) The temporal order of binding visual attributes. Vision research 46(14):2280-6.
  • Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger, and Ulman Lindenberger “Handbook of Binding and Memory” Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Dennett, (1991) Consciousness Explained. Multiple drafts versus the Cartesian theater.
  • Dennett on The Binding Problem

The neural correlates of consciousness

  • Chalmers, D. J. (2000). What is a neural correlate of consciousness? In T. Metzinger (Eds.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Empirical and Conceptual Questions (pp. 31-63). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Beck DM, Rees G, Frith CD, Lavie N. (2001) Neural correlates of change detection and change blindness. Nature Neuroscience 4 (6) 645-650, 2001
  • Rees G, Kreiman G, Koch C (2002) Neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3(4):261-70
  • Milner, A.D. & Goodale, M.A. (2008). Two visual systems re-viewed. Neuropsychologia, 46, 774-785.
  • Crick, F. & Koch, C. (2003). A framework for consciousness. Nature Neuroscience 6 (2),
  • 119-126.
  • Koch, C. (2007). The quest for consciousness: A neurobiological approach. Colorado: Roberts and Company Publishers.
  • Bogen, J.E. (1995). On the neurophysiology of consciousness, part I: An overview.
  • Consciousness and Cognition, 4, 52-62.

Breakdowns in the unity of consciousness I.

  • Cowey, A. (2010). The blindsight saga. Experimental Brain Research, 200, 3-24.
  • Cowey, A., & Stoerig, P. (1995). Blindsight in monkeys. Nature, 373, 247-249.
  • Danckert, J., & Rossetti, Y. (2005). Blindsight in action: What can the different sub-types of blindsight tell us about the control of visually guided actions? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 1035-1046.
  • Kroustallis, B. (2005). Blindsight. Philosophical Psychology, 18, 31-43.
  • Persaud, N., & Cowey, A. (2008). Blindsight is unlike normal conscious vision: Evidence from an exclusion task. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1050-1055.
  • Weiskrantz, L. (2004). Blindsight. In R. L. Gregory (Ed.), The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2nd ed.)., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cytowic, R.E. (2003)The Man Who Tasted Shapes. Cambridge: MIT Press
  • Ramachandran, V.S. & Hubbard, E.M. Synaesthesia: a window into perception, thought and language. J. Conscious. Stud. 8, 3–34 (2001).
  • Hubbard, E.M. & Ramachandran, V.S. Neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia. Neuron 48, 509–520 (2005).
  • Gazzaniga, M. S. (2005). Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong. [Review]. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(8), 653-U651.

 Breakdowns in the unity of consciousness II.

  • Hirstein W, Ramachandran VS (1997). “Capgras syndrome: a novel probe for understanding the neural representation of the identity and familiarity of persons”. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 264: 437–444.
  • Hadyn D. Ellis and Michael B. Lewis (2001) Capgras delusion: a window on face recognition Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 4, 1 April 2001, Pages 149-156.
  • Andrew W. Young (2002) Wondrous Strange: The Neuropsychology of Abnormal Beliefs Mind & Language Volume 15, Issue 1, 47-73.
  • Prigatano, GP & Schacter, DL (1991) Awareness of deficit after brain injury: Clinical and theoretical issues,  Oxford University Press, USA.

Altered states of consciousness

  • Cox, R.E., & Barnier, A.J. (2010). Hypnotic illusions and clinical delusions: Hypnosis as a research method. In R. Langdon & M. Turner (Eds.), Delusion and confabulation: Overlapping or distinct psychopathologies of reality distortion. Macquarie Monographs in Cognitive Science (pp. 202-232). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Barnier, A.J., Dienes, Z., & Mitchell, C.A. (2008). How hypnosis happens: New cognitive theories of hypnotic responding. In M.R. Nash & A.J. Barnier (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of hypnosis: Theory, research and practice (pp. 141-177). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Altered states of consciousness. Tart, Charles T. Oxford, England: Doubleday. (1972)
  • Arne Dietrich (2003) Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness: The transient hypofrontality hypothesis. Consciousness and Cognition Volume 12, Issue 2, June 2003, Pages 231-256.
  • Llinás, R.R., & Paré, D. (1991). Of dreaming and wakefulness. Neuroscience, 44,521–535.
  • Diaz, J. (1997). How drugs influence behavior: A neurobehavioral approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Lyvers, M. (2003, June). The neurochemistry of psychedelic experiences. Science and Consciousness Review, 1.

Mental imagery

  • Pylyshyn (2004) Mental Imagery (Entry in The Oxford Companion to the Mind, Second Edition)
  • Pylyshyn (2002). Mental imagery: In search of a theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 25, 157-238.
  • Daniel C. Dennett (2002). Does your brain use the images in it, and if so, how? Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 25, 189-190.
  • Brooks, L. R. (1967). Spatial and verbal components of the act of recall. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 22, 349-366.
  • Evan Thompson (2007). Look again: Phenomenology and mental imagery. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6: 137-170. Special issue on phenomenology and heterophenomenology, edited by Alva Noe.
  • Thomas NJT (online). Mental imagery

Metacognition and loops

  • “Consciousness and metacognition”. Nelson, Thomas O. American Psychologist, Vol 51(2), Feb 1996, 102-116.
  • Hofstadter, Douglas, I Am a Strange Loop, NY: Basic Books, 2007.
  • Hofstadter, Douglas, Analogy as the Core of Cognition. In The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, edited by Dedre Gentner, Keith J. Holyoak, and Boicho N. Kokinov, Cambridge MA: The MIT Press/Bradford Book, 2001, pp. 499-538.
  • Rosenthal, D. M. (2000). Consciousness, content, and metacognitive judgments. Conscious- ness and Cognition, 9, 203–214.
  • Metacognition and Consciousness by Asher Koriat The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness – Cambridge University Press

Language and consciousness

  • Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York, NY, USA: William Morrow.
  • Pinker, S. (2005). “So How Does the Mind Work?”. Mind and Language 20 (1): 1–24.
  • Fodor, J. A. (1975). The Language of Thought. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.
  • Landauer, T.K., and Dumais, S.T. (1997). A Solution to Plato’s Problem: The Latent Semantic Analysis Theory of Acquisition, Induction, and Representation of Knowledge. Psychological Review, 104, 211-40.
  • Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought? English and Mandarin speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43(1), 1–22
  • Boroditsky, L. & Prinz, J. (2008). What thoughts are made of. In Semin, G., & Smith, E., Eds. Embodied grounding: Social, cognitive, affective, and neuroscientific approaches. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • How does our language shape the way we think? By Lera Boroditsky

Artificial consciousness

  • Searle, J.R. 1984. Can computers think? In Minds, Brains, and Science. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • Searle, J. R. (1990). Is the brain’s mind a computer program? Scientific American, 262, 26–31.
  • Daniel C. Dennett (1997). Consciousness in Human and Robot Minds. In M. Ito, Y. Miyashita & Edmund T. Rolls (eds.), Cognition, Computation and Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
  • Daniel C. Dennett, F. Dretske, S. Shurville, A. Clark, I. Aleksander and J. Cornwell (1994) The Practical Requirements for Making a Conscious Robot [and Discussion] Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 15 October 1994 vol. 349 no. 1689 133-146
  • The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17:7-65, 2010.
  • Richard H. Schlagel (1999) Why not Artificial Consciousness or Thought? Minds and Machines archive Volume 9 Issue 1.

Embodied cognition and “the extended mind”

  • Foreword to Andy Clark’s Supersizing the Mind David J. Chalmers
  • Clark, A., (1997), Being there: putting brain, body and world together again, Cambridge (Mass), MIT Press.
  • Clark, A., (2008), Supersizing the Mind, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Clark, A. and D. Chalmers, (1998), “The Extended Mind.” in Analysis, 58(1): 10-23.
  • Clark, A. (1999). “Embodied, situated, and distributed cognition.” In W. Betchel and G. Graham (eds), A Companion to Cognitive Science, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Noe, Alva (2006). Experience without the head. In Tamar S. Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Perceptual Experience. Oxford University Press.
  • Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press.